Patients are referred to our medical physicians for evaluation, various modes of therapy, or for very specific procedures. Our centers are staffed by board certified physicians with extensive experience working with pain problems. Specific procedures include epidural steroid injections for back pain syndromes, therapeutic and diagnostic injections or nerve blocks, sympathetic nerve blocks, trigger point injections, electrical stimulation and acupuncture. Because some pain problems involve multiple factors, we sometimes will work with other specialists such as physical therapists and psychologists. Most problems can be managed on an outpatient basis, but sometimes hospitalization is required.